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        音樂術語為什么大多都使用意大利語?

        發布時間:2018/12/30 23:01:07 來源:沈陽學吉他網 發布:谷宇飛 閱讀:


        Badinerie (嬉戲曲)

        Karl Richter/The Munich Philharmonic Orchestra - 巴赫 勃蘭登堡協奏曲第6首


        Why do we use Italian words in music notation?

        為什么樂譜注釋使用意大利語?

        By Maddy Shaw Roberts


        Music is never loud or quiet, it’s ‘forte’, ‘piano’ or somewhere in between. And it’s all because Italian music theorists got there first…When the rules for music notation were worked out and written down, it was all done in Italian. Around 1000 AD, Guido of Arezzo created the earliest version of the heads and stems on staves structure that we know today.


        音樂從來不是響亮或安靜的,它要么是“強”(forte)、要么是“弱”(piano),亦或是介于兩者之間。由于意大利音樂理論家最先領到這些要領,所以當記譜法(the rules for music notation)被記錄下來并且為人們所沿用之時,譜面上的記號都是用意大利語寫成的。大約在公元1000年,生活在意大利阿雷佐市的圭多(Guido)創造了如今為人熟知的“五線譜”(the heads and stems on staves structure )的前身。


        (譯者注:意大利人圭多在記譜時將線加到四根,音域為八度左右,使音高記譜更準確。他開始用四條橫線表示音的高低,又把當時流行的一種表示音的長短的符號放在四條橫線中,來記載樂曲,這便是五線譜的雛形。)


        IV. Presto, Poco a poco rallentando al Adagio (第四樂章 急板,逐漸逐漸地放慢到柔板)

        Berliner Philharmoniker/Herbert von Karajan - Sibelius: Symphonies Nos. 4 & 7, Valse triste


        How did music notation begin?

        記譜法是如何興起的?


        Over the next few hundred years, musicians built on Guido’s system, and music theorists added useful features like note values and time signatures.But composers wanted more. They wanted to describe their music in more detail and tell musicians exactly how it should be played. So, they wrote musical directions on their pieces like ‘andante’ and ‘rallentando’.


        圭多發明四線記譜法后,音樂理論家在其基礎上增加了一些有用的特性,比如音符時值和拍子記號。但仍無法滿足作曲家創作需求,他們想更詳盡地描述他們的音樂,并確切地告訴音樂家應該如何演奏。所以,他們在作品上寫了音樂指示,像行板(andante)和漸慢地(rallentando)。


        After a while, these terms became quite fashionable. So, when the rest of Europe – as it existed back then – started notating their music, they continued the trend in the same language.


        這些音樂術語不久就在當時盛行起來。當歐洲其他地方開始作樂譜標記時,他們仍沿用意大利語來進行樂譜標記。


        Partita No. 1 in B Minor, BWV 1002: IV. Tempo di Borea

        Ivan Sokol - Bach Partita


        Some terms crept into the English dictionary

        一些意大利音樂術語融入英文詞典中


        There are some Italian terms like ‘tempo’, ‘adagio’, ‘allegretto’ and ‘rallentando’ which are only used in the context of writing or reading music.But others, like ‘concerto’, ‘piano’, ‘soprano’ and ‘opera’ were so stylish that they have made their way from the original Italian into our everyday musical vocabulary.


        有一些意大利術語,如“拍子”、“柔板”、“小快板”和“漸慢地”等詞,它們只運用在音樂創作或讀譜時。但其他的意大利音樂術語,如“協奏曲”(concerto)、“弱”(piano)、“女高音”(soprano)和“歌劇”(opera)等詞匯非常入時,以至于它們已經從最初的意大利語發展到了我們日常的音樂詞匯。


        And it wasn't just the terms themselves that were taken on European composers also adopted compositional forms like the cantata, partita and rondo.What's more, Italian musical instrument makers like Stradivari, Guarneri and Amati slowly became the stuff of musical legend.


        不僅是這些術語本身,歐洲作曲家也采用了像康塔塔(cantata),變奏曲(partita )和回旋曲(rondo)這樣的曲式來進行創作。此外,意大利樂器制造商,如斯特拉迪瓦里,瓜奈利和阿馬蒂也慢慢成為了樂壇傳奇。


        Symphony No. 6 In F major, Op. 68, "Pastoral" - 5. Allegretto

        The Royal Festival Orchestra - Beethoven - The Complete Symphony Collection


        The language itself is musical

        意大利語本身就具有音樂性


        Italian is often called a naturally musical language – so there’s something fitting in the fact that it’s this language that’s used for musical directions.This isn’t to say that every composer has stuck to the standard. Beethoven’s Pastoral Symphony No. 6 is marked in German, while moments of Debussy’s Clair de lune are marked in French.


        意大利語常被稱為與生俱來的音樂語言——所以用意大利語來注解音樂,恰如其分。但這并不是硬性規定:貝多芬的《第六交響曲》(田園交響曲)就用德語作了樂譜注釋,而德彪西的《月光》則用法語作了標記。”


        Symphony No. 1, 3rd movement

        Mahler - Meditation - Classical Relaxation Vol. 5


        if all composers wrote directions in their own language?

        若都用自己的語言來注解呢?


        Many have! Mahler, for example, stuck to German for many of the directions in his symphonies. And perhaps writing in their own language allows composers to more effectively communicate their meaning. After all, some things are always lost in translation.But then, crucially, music and music directions would no longer be a universal language…


        這樣的情況不在少數!例如,馬勒在注解他創作的交響樂時大多堅持使用德語。也許用他們自己的語言寫作能讓作曲家更準確有效地表達清楚所言之意。畢竟,有些東西總是會在語言的翻譯中遺失。不過,最重要的是,音樂和音樂注釋將不再被一種世界通用的語言所局限。(譯者注:這里指音樂創作的多元化趨勢將不局限于某一民族或地域。)


        Symphony #7 In E Minor, Lied Der Nacht - Mvt. 5 Tempo 1 (Halbe Wie Die Viertel Des Tempoi)

        Mahler - Mahler: Symphony No. 7 Lied Der Nacht



        標簽:音樂術語







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